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terça-feira, 1 de agosto de 2017

Língua Inglesa III

Língua Estrangeira (Inglês III)
Língua Estrangeira (Inglês III)

01
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 2ª Aplicação).

Disponível em: www.time.com. Acesso em: 30 jul. 2012 (adaptado).

A proposta da capa da revista, associando aspectos verbais e visuais, transmite a seguinte mensagem:

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02
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 2ª Aplicação).

If You’re Out There

  If you hear this message

  Wherever you stand

  I’m calling every woman

  Calling every man

  

  We’re the generation

   We can’t afford to wait

  The future started yesterday

  And we’re already late

  

  We’ve been looking for a song to sing

  Searched for a melody

  Searched for someone to lead

  We’ve been looking for the world to change

  If you feel the same, we’ll go on and say

  If you’re out there

  

  Sing along with me if you’re out there

  I’m dying to believe that you’re out there

  Stand up and say it loud if you’re out there

  Tomorrow’s starting now...now...now […]

  

  We can destroy Hunger

  We can conquer Hate

  Put down the arms and raise your voice

  We’re joining hands today […]

LEGEND, J. Evolver. Los Angeles: Sony Music, 2008 (fragmento).

O trecho da letra de If You’re Out There revela que essa canção, lançada em 2008, é um(a)

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03
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 2ª Aplicação).

Synopsis

   Filmed over nearly three years, WASTE LAND follows renowned artist Vik Muniz as he journeys from his home base in Brooklyn to his native Brazil and the world’s largest garbage dump, Jardim Gramacho, located on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro. There he photographs an eclectic band of “catadores” — self-designated pickers of recyclable materials. Muniz’s initial objective was to “paint” the catadores with garbage. However, his collaboration with these inspiring characters as they recreate photographic images of themselves out of garbage reveals both the dignity and despair of the catadores as they begin to re-imagine their lives. Director Lucy Walker (DEVIL’S PLAYGROUND, BLINDSIGHT and COUNTDOWN TO ZERO) and co-directors João Jardim and Karen Harley have great access to the entire process and, in the end, offer stirring evidence of the transformative power of art and the alchemy of the human spirit.

Disponível em: www.wastelandmovie.com. Acesso em: 2 dez. 2012.

Vik Muniz é um artista plástico brasileiro radicado em Nova York. O documentário Waste Land, produzido por ele em 2010, recebeu vários prêmios e

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04
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 2ª Aplicação).

The Four Oxen and the Lion

   A lion used to prowl about a field in which Four Oxen used to live. Many a time he tried to attack them; but whenever he came near, they turned their tails to one another, so that whichever way he approached them he was met by the horns of one of them. At last, however, they quarreled among themselves, and each went off to pasture alone in a separate corner of the field. Then the Lion attacked them one by one and soon made an end of all four.

Disponível em: www.aesopfables.com. Acesso em: 1 dez. 2011.

A fábula The Four Oxen and the Lion ilustra um preceito moral, como se espera em textos desse gênero. Essa moral, podendo ser compreendida como o tema do texto, está expressa em:

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05
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 2ª Aplicação).

As Furniture Burns Quicker, Firefighters Reconsider Tactics

  House fires have changed. The New York Fire Departament is rethinking its tactics for residential fires, while trying to hold onto its culture of “aggressive interior firefighting" — charging inside burning buildings as fast as possible.

  Plastic fillings in sofas and mattresses burn much faster than older fillings like cotton, helping to transform the behavior of house fires in the last few decades, firefighters and engineers say. With more plastic in homes, residential fires are now likely to use up all the oxygen in a room before they consume all flammable materiais.

  “Years ago you could break a window and it took the fire several minutes to develop — or tens of minutes”, a fire battalion chief in Queens, George K. Healy, said. “Now we’re learning when you vent that window or the door, the fire is developing in, say, a minute."

LIBRADO, R. Disponível em: www.nytimes.com. Acesso em: 15 jun. 2013 (adaptado).

O texto aborda o tema dos incêndios residenciais, que se propagam com mais rapidez atualmente por causa

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06
(ENEM 2014 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

The war song

  War war is stupid

  And people are stupid

  And love means nothing

  In some strange quarters

  War war is stupid

  And people are stupid

  And I heard them banging

  On hearts and fingers

  People fill the world

  With narrow confidence

  Like a child at birth

  A man with no defense

  What's mine is my own

  I won't give it to you

  No matter what you say

  No matter what you do

  Now we're fighting

  In our hearts Fighting in the street

  Won't somebody help me?

Disponível em: http://letras.mus.br. Acesso em: 29 jun. 2012

A música é uma forma de expressão artística e cultural e pode revelar diferentes formas de compreender o mundo. Na letra da canção do grupo Culture Club, entende-se que a guerra é o resultado da

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07
(ENEM 2014 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Slow Food

  Slow Food describes a movement created "to counteract fast food and fast life, the disappearance of local food traditions and people's dwindling interest in the food they eat, where it comes from, how it tastes and how our food choices affect the rest of the world," according to the movement's website. More broadly, it involves an emphasis on local and seasonal produce and an adherence to regional cultures. Its goals also include lobbying against the use of pesticides and genetic engineering of food.

Disponível em: www.ecomii.com. Acesso em: 30 set. 2011

O objetivo do movimento Slow food é

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08
(ENEM 2014 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Japan — Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Crisis (2011)

  In many ways, Japan is still reeling from the devastating earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 and the nuclear crisis and huge leaks of radiation it set off. The earthquake and tsunami led to soul searching in a nation already worn down by two lost decades of economic growth, a rapidly aging and now shrinking population, political paralysis and the rapid rise of its longtime rival, China.

  The government will now focus on removing the fuel stored at the site, opening up the ravaged reactors themselves and eventually dismantling the plant, a process that is expected to take at least four decades, Mr. Noda said.

  But for many of the people of Fukushima, the crisis is far from over. More than 160,000 people remain displaced, and even as the government lifts evacuation orders for some communities, many are refusing to return home.

Disponível em: http://topics.nytimes.com. Acesso em: 24 fev. 2012 (adaptado).

O excerto do artigo publicado no site do jornal The New York Times, acerca da situação em que o Japão se encontrava em 2011, expõe o tema:

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09
(ENEM 2014 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

A tira, definida como um segmento de história em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem com efeito de humor. Na tira, a presença desse efeito no diálogo entre Lucy e seu irmão Linus acontece porque

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10
(ENEM 2014 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Land of all peoples

  Paraná has approximately 10 million inhabitants. R is the 6th most populous state, with 5.6% of the total Brazilian population and 38% of the population of the southern region. Its demographic density is 47.98 inhabitants per km².

  A melting pot of several ethnic groups, Paraná is known as the "'and of all peoples". The state has welcomed immigrants from the most diverse parts of the world: Poles, Italians, Ukrainians, Japanese, Germans, Spaniards, Dutchmen, Frenchmen, Syrians, Lebanese, Englishmen and Israelis.

  They have contributed to the state's social and cultural structure, substantially influencing its everyday language, its oral and written literature, its religious celebrations, its cooking habits and many other social activities. To this day, that rich ethnic variety is carefully preserved and even developed further, giving Paraná a rather unique human typology.

SECRETARIA DE ESTADO DA INDÚSTRIA, DO COMÉRCIO E ASSUNTOS DO MERCOSUL. Paraná, a state of opportunity.

No trecho extraído de um catálogo informativo sobre o Estado do Paraná, percebe-se que seus autores têm a intenção de

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11
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

BASSET, B. Disponível em: www.gocomics.com. Acesso em: 4 fev. 2013.

No diálogo entre mãe e filho, o uso do verbo fake pelo garoto indica que ele

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12
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Turn Off Your TV!

AUGUST 17, 2011

By Alice Park

    Sitting in front of the television may be relaxing, but spending too much time in front of the tube may take years off your life.

    That’s what Australian researchers found when they collected TV viewing information from more than 11,000 people older than 25. The study found that people who watched an average six hours of TV a day lived an average 4.8 years less than those who didn’t watch any television. Also, every hour of TV that participants watched after age 25 was associated with a 22-minute reduction in their life expectancy.

PARK, A. Disponível em: www.timeforkids.com. Acesso em: 5 dez. 2012.

A televisão faz parte da vida diária de boa parte das pessoas em todo o mundo. O texto, cujo título traz um conselho ao leitor, centra-se em

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13
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Develop Good Study Habits Early On

    Here are some simple tips to help you improve your study habits:

    Have a routine for where and when you study.

   Decide in advance what you’ll study, choosing reasonable and specific goals that you can accomplish.

   Do things that are harder or require more intense thought earlier in the day.

   Take breaks so that you stay fresh and don’t waste time by looking at material but not absorbing it.

   Make use of “dead” time right before and after class and during breaks between other activities.

Disponível em: www.education.com. Acesso em: 27 jun. 2012.

Desenvolver as próprias estratégias de estudo pode ajudar estudantes a obter melhores resultados. Com o propósito de auxiliá-los nessa tarefa, o texto lista dicas de hábitos de estudo que compreendem

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14
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Disponível em: www.fickr.com. Acesso em: 19 nov. 2012.

Com base na observação dos aspectos verbo-visuais que constituem este anúncio, entende-se que ele busca

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15
(ENEM 2017 - Língua Inglesa - 3ª Aplicação).

Esse infográfico mostra fatos interessantes sobre o café. Com base em seus elementos verbais, em especial dos valores numéricos, e não verbais, o leitor aprende que

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16
(ENEM 2018 - 1ª Aplicação).

GLASSERGEN. R. Disponível em: www.glasbergen.com. Acesso em: 3 jul. 2015 (adaptado).

No cartum, a crítica está no fato de a sociedade exigir do adolescente que

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    No cartum, a crítica está no fato de a sociedade exigir do adolescente que amadureça precocemente.

   Tradução: "Quando eu tinha 5 anos todo mundo me dizia para ser um garoto grande. Quando eu tinha 10 anos, eles me disseram que eu deveria ser mais maduro. Agora, eles dizem que é o momento de começar a agir como adulto. Nesse ritmo, estarei apto para a previdência social antes de graduar no Ensino Médio!".


17
(ENEM 2018 - 1ª Aplicação).

   Lava Mae: Creating Showers on Wheels for the Homeless San Francisco, according to recent city numbers, has 4,300 people living on the streets. Among the many problems the homeless face is little or no access to showers. San Francisco only has about 16 to 20 shower stalls to accommodate them. But Doniece Sandoval has made it her mission to change that. The 51-year-old former marketing executive started Lava Mae, a sort of showers on wheels, a new project that aims to turn decommissioned city buses into shower stations for the homeless. Each bus will have two shower stations and Sandoval expects that they'll be able to provide 2,000 showers a week.

ANDREANO, C. Disponível em: http://abcnews.go.com. Acesso em: 26 jun. 2015 (adaptado).

A relação dos vocábulos shower, bus e homeless, no texto, refere-se a

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    A relação dos vocábulos shower (banho), bus (ônibus) e homeless (moradores de rua), no texto, refere-se a criar acesso a banhos gratuitos para moradores de rua.

   Lê-se no texto:

   The 51-year-old former marketing executive started Lava Mae, a sort of showers on wheels, a new project that aims to turn decommissioned city buses into shower stations for the homeless.

   "O executivo de marketing aposentado de 51 anos fundou a Lave Mae, uma espécie de banhos sobre rodas, um novo projeto que pretende transformar ônibus urbanos desativados em estações de banho para os moradores de rua."


18
(ENEM 2018 - 1ª Aplicação).

TEXTO I

    A Free World-class Education for Anyone Anywhere The Khan Academy is an organization on a mission. We're a notfor-profit with the goal of changing education for the better by providing a free world-class education to anyone anywhere. All of the site's resources are available to anyone. The Khan Academy's materials and resources are available to you completely free of charge.

Disponível em: www.khanacademy.org. Acesso em: 24 fev. 2012 (adaptado)

TEXTO II

   I didn't have a problem with Khan Academy site until very recently. For me, the problem is the way Khan Academy is being promoted. The way the media sees it as “revolutionizing education”. The way people with power and money view education as simply “sit-and-get”. If your philosophy of education is “sit-and-get”, i.e., teaching is telling and learning is listening, then Khan Academy is way more efficient than classroom lecturing. Khan Academy does it better. But TRUE progressive educators, TRUE education visionaries and revolutionaries don’t want to do these things better. We want to DO BETTER THINGS.

Disponível em: http://fnoschese.wordpress.com. Acesso em: 2 mar. 2012.

Como o impacto das tecnologias e a ampliação das redes sociais, consumidores encontram na internet possibilidades de opinar sobre serviços oferecidos. Nesse sentido, o segundo texto, que é um comentário sobre o site divulgado no primeiro, apresenta a intenção do autor de

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O texto apresenta a intenção do autor de criticar a concepção de educação em que se baseia a organização.

Lê-se a informação no seguinte trecho: “...teaching is telling and learning is listening, then Khan Academy is way more efficient than classroom lecturing. Khan Academy does it better. But TRUE progressive educators, TRUE education visionaries and revolutionaries don‘t want to do these things better. We want to DO BETTER THINGS.”.


19
(ENEM 2018 - 1ª Aplicação).

   Don't write in English, they said,

   English is not your mother tongue...

   ...The language I speak

   Becomes mine, its distortions, its queerness

   All mine, mine alone, it is half English, half

   Indian, funny perhaps, but it is honest,

   It is as human as I am human...

   ...It voices my joys, my longings my

   Hopes...

   (Kamala Das, 1965:10)

GARGESH. R. South Asian Englishes. In: KACHRU. B. B.; KACHRU. Y.; NELSON, C. L. (Eds). The Handbook of World Englishes. Singapore: Blackwell. 2006.

A poetisa Kamala Das, como muitos escritores indianos, escreve suas obras em inglês, apesar de essa não ser sua primeira língua. Nesses versos, ela

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   A poetisa indiana Kamala Das, como muitos outros escritores indianos, escreve suas obras em inglês, apesar de essa não ser a sua língua materna. Nesses, versos, ela demonstra consciência de sua identidade linguística.

   Lê-se no texto, "......The language I speak Becomes mine, its distortions, its queerness All mine, mine alone, it is half English, half Indian, funny perhaps, but it is honest, It is as human as I am human..."

    "A língua que falo se torna minha, suas distorções, sua esquisitice/ toda minha, só minha, é meio inglês, meio indiano, engraçada talvez, mas é honesta, é tão humana quanto eu sou humana ..."


20
(ENEM 2018 - 1ª Aplicação).

1984 (excerpt)

   'Is it your opinion, Winston, that the past has real existence?' [...] O'Brien smiled faintly. 'I will put it more precisely. Does the past exist concretely, in space? Is there somewhere or other a place, a world of solid objects, where the past is still happening?'

   'No.'

   'Then where does the past exist, if at all?'

   'In records. It is written down.'

   'In records. And –– ––?'

   'In the mind. In human memories.'

   'In memory. Very well, then. We, the Party, control all records, and we control all memories. Then we control the past, do we not?'

ORWELL. G. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Signet Classics, 1977.

O romance 1984 descreve os perigos de um Estado totalitário. A ideia evidenciada nessa passagem é que o controle do Estado se dá por meio do(a)

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   A ideia evidenciada nessa passagem é que o controle do Estado se dá por meio do poder sobre memórias e registros.

   Lê-se a informação no seguinte trecho:

   “'No.'

   'Then where does the past exist, if at all?'

   'In records. It is written down.'

   'In records. And –– ––?'

   'In the mind. In human memories.'”

   

   *records: registros

   *mind: mente


21
(ENEM 2018 - 2ª Aplicação).

Disponível em: www.doityourself.com. Acesso em: 12 jul. 2015.

Pelas expressões do it yourself e How-Tos, entende-se que a pesquisa realizada na página da internet revela uma busca por

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Pelas expressões do it yourself e How-Tos, entende-se que a pesquisa realizada na página da internet revela uma busca por instrução para a realização de atividades.


22
(ENEM 2018 - 2ª Aplicação).

Which skin colour are you? The human swatch chart that confronts racism

   In 1933, in a book called The Masters and the Slaves, the Brazilian anthropologist Gilberto Freyre wrote: “Every Brazilian, even the light-skinned, fair-haired one, carries about him on his soul, when not on soul and body alike, the shadow, or at least the birthmark, of the aborigine or the negro.” This was forefront in the mind of the French artist Pierre David when he moved to Brazil in 2009. “When I was in the streets, I could see so many skin colours”, he says. He decided to make a human colour chart, like one you would find in the paint section of B&Q shop, but showing the gradations and shades of our skin colour. The project, called Nuancier or “swatches”, was first shown at the Museu de Arte Moderna in Salvador – Bahia, and is now on show in his native France. “Brazil has a better attitude to skin colour than other developed nations”, he says. “There's no doubt, because the concept of skin colour difference was recognised very early in their history. Now, it even appears on identity documents.”

   Yet Nuancier, David says, is still a critique of racism, in Brazil and around the world. “This work may seem provocative – to classify men by colour, to industrially produce the colour of an individual so it can be store-bought. But this is a demonstration of the commodification of bodies. It denounces racism anywhere it is found in the world.”

SEYMOUR, T. Disponível em: www.theguardian.com. Acesso em: 21 out. 2015 (adaptado).

O artista francês Pierre David, ao evidenciar seu encantamento com a diversidade de cores de peles no Brasil, no projeto Nuancier, também

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O artista francês Pierre David, ao evidenciar seu encantamento com a diversidade de cores de peles no Brasil, no projeto Nuancier, também provoca uma reflexão crítica em relação à classificação e à mercantilização das raças.


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(ENEM 2018 - 2ª Aplicação).

Monks embrace web to reach recruits

Stew Milne for The New York Times

   The Benedictine monks at the Portsmouth Abbey in Portsmouth have a problem. They are aging and their numbers have fallen to 12, from a peak of about 24 in 1969. So the monks have taken to the Internet with an elaborate ad campaign featuring videos, a blog and even a Gregorian chant ringtone. “If this is the way the younger generation are looking things up and are communicating, then this is the place to be”, said Abbot Caedmon Holmes, who has been in charge of the abbey since 2007. That place is far from the solitary lives that some may think monks live. In fact, in this age of social media, the monks have embraced what may be the most popular form of public self-expression: a Facebook page, where they have uploaded photos and video testimonials. Some monks will even write blogs.

MILNE, S. Disponível em: www.nytimes.com. Acesso em: 19 jun. 2012 (adaptado).

A internet costuma ser um veículo de comunicação associado às camadas mais jovens da população, embora não exclusivamente a elas. Segundo o texto, a razão que levou os religiosos a fazerem uma campanha publicitária na internet foi o(a)

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Segundo o texto, a razão que levou os religiosos a fazerem uma campanha publicitária na internet foi a busca por novos interessados pela vida religiosa de monge.


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(ENEM 2018 - 2ª Aplicação).

Spring Break Camp, 2015. Fôlder. Orange County Regional History Center.

Tendo em vista a procura por atividades de lazer em períodos de recesso escolar, esse fôlder

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Tendo em vista a procura por atividades de lazer em períodos de recesso escolar, esse fôlder divulga uma proposta de acampamento com abordagem temática.


25
(ENEM 2018 - 2ª Aplicação).

   Most people today have a mobile phone. In fact, many people can't imagine how they ever got along without a portable phone. However, many people also complain about cell phone users. People complain about other people loudly discussing personal matters in public places. They complain when cell phones ring in movie theaters and concert halls. They complain about people driving too slow, and not paying attention to where they are going because they are talking on a cell phone. And they complain about people walking around talking to people who aren't there.

    Whenever a new communications technology becomes popular, it changes the way society is organized. Society has to invent rules for the polite way to use the new devices. Our social etiquette, our rules of politeness for cell phones, is still evolving.

Disponível em: www.indianchild.com. Acesso em: 28 fev. 2012 (adaptado).

O uso de celulares em lugares públicos tem sido prática corrente. O texto aponta que essa prática tem gerado

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O uso de celulares em lugares públicos tem sido prática corrente. O texto aponta que essa prática tem gerado reclamações sobre a falta de normas no comportamento dos usuários.





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